This frees you up to concentrate on further research, as well as allow you to run multiple strategies or even strategies of higher frequency in fact, HFT is essentially impossible without automated execution. As can be seen, quantitative trading is an extremely complex, albeit very interesting, area of quantitative finance. These optimisations are the key to turning a relatively mediocre strategy into a highly profitable one.
All quantitative trading processes begin with an initial period of research. Academics regularly publish theoretical trading results albeit mostly gross of transaction costs. Quantitative finance blogs will discuss strategies in detail. Trade journals will outline some of the strategies employed by funds. These optimisations are the key to turning a relatively mediocre strategy into a highly profitable one. In fact, one of the best ways to create your own unique strategies is to find similar methods and then carry out your own optimisation procedure.
Once a strategy, or set of strategies, has been identified it now needs to be tested for profitability on historical data. However, backtesting is NOT a guarantee of success, for various reasons. It is perhaps the most subtle area of quantitative trading since it entails numerous biases, which must be carefully considered and eliminated as much as possible.
Other areas of importance within backtesting include availability and cleanliness of historical data, factoring in realistic transaction costs and deciding upon a robust backtesting platform.
Once a strategy has been identified, it is necessary to obtain the historical data through which to carry out testing and, perhaps, refinement. There are a significant number of data vendors across all asset classes.
Their costs generally scale with the quality, depth and timeliness of the data. The traditional starting point for beginning quant traders at least at the retail level is to use the free data set from Yahoo Finance. One of the benefits of doing so is that the backtest software and execution system can be tightly integrated, even with extremely advanced statistical strategies.
For HFT strategies in particular it is essential to use a custom implementation. When backtesting a system one must be able to quantify how well it is performing. The maximum drawdown characterises the largest peak-to-trough drop in the account equity curve over a particular time period usually annual.
This is most often quoted as a percentage. LFT strategies will tend to have larger drawdowns than HFT strategies, due to a number of statistical factors. A historical backtest will show the past maximum drawdown, which is a good guide for the future drawdown performance of the strategy. The second measurement is the Sharpe Ratio, which is heuristically defined as the average of the excess returns divided by the standard deviation of those excess returns. Note that annualised return is not a measure usually utilised, as it does not take into account the volatility of the strategy unlike the Sharpe Ratio.
Once a strategy has been backtested and is deemed to be free of biases in as much as that is possible! Despite the fact that the trade generation can be semi- or even fully-automated, the execution mechanism can be manual, semi-manual i. For LFT strategies, manual and semi-manual techniques are common. For HFT strategies it is necessary to create a fully automated execution mechanism, which will often be tightly coupled with the trade generator due to the interdependence of strategy and technology.
There are many ways to interface to a brokerage. They range from calling up your broker on the telephone right through to a fully-automated high-performance Application Programming Interface API.
Ideally you want to automate the execution of your trades as much as possible. This frees you up to concentrate on further research, as well as allow you to run multiple strategies or even strategies of higher frequency in fact, HFT is essentially impossible without automated execution. This was using an optimised Python script.
In a larger fund it is often not the domain of the quant trader to optimise execution. Bear that in mind if you wish to be employed by a fund. Your programming skills will be as important, if not more so, than your statistics and econometrics talents!
Another major issue which falls under the banner of execution is that of transaction cost minimisation. There are generally three components to transaction costs: Note that the spread is NOT constant and is dependent upon the current liquidity i. Transaction costs can make the difference between an extremely profitable strategy with a good Sharpe ratio and an extremely unprofitable strategy with a terrible Sharpe ratio.
It can be a challenge to correctly predict transaction costs from a backtest. Entire teams of quants are dedicated to optimisation of execution in the larger funds, for these reasons. Consider the scenario where a fund needs to offload a substantial quantity of trades of which the reasons to do so are many and varied!
The final major issue for execution systems concerns divergence of strategy performance from backtested performance. This can happen for a number of reasons.
However, some strategies do not make it easy to test for these biases prior to deployment. Additionally, long-fiber thermoplastic provides high strength, flexibility of design, and poses dimensional stability. Long fiber thermoplastic LFT is increasingly being used in automotive applications for upper front-end modules, door module, service panel, and underbody shields.
They possess a significant potential for mass-transit applications in buses, trucks, and railroad vehicles. The LFTs are processed with a thermoplastic matrix such as polypropylene PP or polyamide PAI reinforced with long glass or carbon fibers, with initial fiber lengths greater than 12 millimeters, using a pultrusion processing method.
The LFT components are typically produced using extrusion-compression molding. In an experiment, a bus seat was chosen as a component to assess the viability of LFT technology to reduce cost and weight, without compromising performance over conventional designs.
Additionally, the reduction in noise and vibration levels is another benefit of using long fiber thermoplastics. Europe region held the major market share in long fiber thermoplastic market. The growth in the region is attributed to increasing application of thermoplastic-based composites in industries such as automotive, industrial goods, consumer goods and sporting goods. Additionally, the presence of major automotive manufacturing industries, especially in Germany is further anticipated to accelerate the growth of European long fiber thermoplastic market.
Asia-Pacific long fiber thermoplastic market is forecasted to witness a significant growth, during the forecast period. The growth of LFT market in this region is attributed to increasing production capacities, high consumption potential, and growing economic rates in the emerging economies such as China, Japan, and India.
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